The climate of the commodity grain supply chain in 2022 was bleak, to say the least. Our customers vented about shipping delays and inconsistencies, corporatization, and price upsurges— all served with a side of obtuse sales strategies and degraded product quality. As occasional issues turn endemic, we continue to scrutinize our malt quality, business model, and customer service standards. And we’re proud to report that our proactive mission has mitigated reactivity to the aggressively changing malt industry.

From day one we’ve been committed to high quality malt sourced from regional, family farms that we deliver on time. It’s that simple, and we plan to keep it up.

Kate Bernot of Good Beer Hunting recently covered the ramifications of increasing malt prices on the beer industry in an impressive piece that delves into the craft malt industry at large. We were honored to be among the voices of the craft maltsters she profiled, who include Valley Malt and Root Shoot Malting. Included in the dialogue was a quote from our CEO Scott Hickman who said, “There’s been this bizarre inversion, and we have found ourselves being less expensive than a couple of the big malt suppliers in certain situations.”

Bernot’s words are a poignant, timely read for anyone involved in the industry. In so many spaces like this one she hits the nail on the head when she describes why this topic matters.

With the price gap between craft malt and commodity malt narrowing, some brewers and craft maltsters believe now is the time for craft malt to finally compete economically against its larger counterparts. Given high shipping costs, a brewery may save additional money by sourcing its malts from its region rather than from across the country or overseas.


Read the full article on Good Beer Hunting.

Conviviality – (noun) the quality of being friendly and lively; friendliness.

For good reason, face-to-face sales calls during the pandemic looked a lot different. Masks and social distancing made it tough to connect with customers sans curated tastings that had become the hallmark of our industry. Once we arrived on the other side of Omicron in early 2022, things began to ease up a bit– allowing a more comfortable vibe to return to our day to day routine. Three visits in particular stand out as prime examples of the convivial moments that I deeply missed during the pandemic. Thanks to these folks for hosting us, and sharing their craft. 

Green Bench Brewing with owner Khris Johnson

Khris was more than generous with his time, spending the better part of an afternoon walking us through his mixed culture program as well as the flagships and one-offs available. Our conversations bounced from process details to ingredient selections to industry trends. This conversation also kicked off the research and development of our new Czech-style Pilsner. Khris shared some details about a recent call he’d had with a malt house in the Czech Republic and their traditional approach to this style. It took us several attempts, but we were finally able to land a product that bends modern, aggressively germinating barley to an old world level of modification.


Tap Station with Dave Haydesch

Tap Station in Apex, NC is a super cool spot with loads of personality. Housed in an old gas station, the renovation includes a second story deck and outdoor beer garden in the heart of downtown. The interior is fitted with old car parts repurposed as lighting fixtures and draft stations. Dave plied us with tastings of several tasty beers, like their Peak City Pale Ale, which paired perfectly with the smash burgers and fancy tot platters in front of us. It definitely quenched my thirst for good conversation and genuine friendship!


Harding House Brewing Co. with Nate Underwood

I think Nate wins the award for the most thorough tasting of 2022! I mean damn… we tasted ALL the things! Granted I was long overdue for a visit as we’ve been working closely together since they opened several years back. Tons of mixture culture offerings were presented with the complete backstory on the local purveyors as well as his process tweaks in the brewhouse. There were beers made with tomatoes, foraged ingredients, and locally-grown fruits that all worked in harmony to create some really special liquid


Happy Holidays and cheers to the year ahead! 

– Brent Manning

Durham, North Carolina-based Fullsteam Brewery is a long-standing partner of ours. Years ago, they were one of the first craft breweries to go all-in on our mission by switching to Riverbend as a primary base malt provider. Utilizing local ingredients falls in line with their Southern Beer Economy ethos and dedication to sourcing within North Carolina as much as possible. 

“We were proud to support Riverbend before expansion, back when they had that tiny little malting setup,” says Jon Simpson, Fullsteam’s Head Brewer and self-proclaimed local malt advocate. “The quality has gotten infinitely better in 12 years, and we’re proud of our commitment to them— and to buying local.” 

As Fullsteam grew into two locations and distribution across the Carolinas, we’ve been delighted to support their continued choice to purchase Riverbend malt– and not just base malt either. Most recently Fullsteam has made the switch from commodity to Cumberland Corn in their flagship Paycheck Pilsner recipe. 

“Sure, craft malt is a little more expensive,” Simpson continues. “But it’s not cheap anymore to ship directly from European malthouses either. The cost-benefit of buying big domestic malt is disintegrating. And especially with the story we’re trying to tell, Riverbend malt just makes sense.” 

Fullsteam is telling the next chapter of that story with a custom base malt blended specifically for them, aptly named Plow To Pint Pilsner malt after their company slogan. It’s a blend of Violetta 2-row barley (motivated by Simpson’s love for Chesapeake Pilsner malt made from this varietal) and the brand new Avalon 2-row barley, both grown this year at Bay’s Best Feed in Heathsville, Virginia. Simpson describes this new blend as the best of Violetta’s floral and Avalon’s honey and bready notes.  He and his team engaged in every step of this custom malt process– including visiting the malthouse on raking day to do some of the labor themselves

The first beer to utilize Plow To Pint in the recipe is the second rendition of the “Oops” series, in which Simpson and crew “pick a cool hop and roll with it.” Oops! We [Nelsoned] Again is a crisp Pilsner made with Plow To Pint Pilsner malt, Nelson Sauvin™ hops from Yakima Valley, and Lallemand NovaLager™ yeast. Flavors include NZ Sauv Blanc-like tropical fruit, catty funk, and grapefruit pith. “It’s almost a SMaSH beer with a couple bags of Great Chit for head retention and mouthfeel,” Simpson says. 

There’s much more to come from the Oops series, and Simpson has exciting plans for future recipes incorporating Plow To Pint Pilsner malt. Meet Fullsteam’s beers and learn more about their company mission to craft distinctly Southern beer that celebrates the farm and food traditions of the American South at

“As I’ve said,” Simpson reiterates. “Local malt is my jam. I want to tell everyone why it matters!” 

Photo courtesy North Carolina Brewers Guild

Congratulations to our customers on taking home hardware at many industry competitions this year!

An array of Riverbend malt supporters won medals at the U.S. Open Beer Championship. Props to Cherry Street Brewing who earned five medals, including a gold for the the 12.12.12 made with our rye that won first place in the Barrel-Aged Barley Wine category and the Atomic Funk made with Chesapeake Pilsner that placed third in the Brett Beer category. Earlier this year, Cherry Street also earned gold at the World Beer Cup® for For-scythe Wheat made with Riverbend malted, Georgia-grown wheat.

The U.S. Open also awarded Mason Jar Lager Company with a silver for Moonlight Excursion for Baltic Porter, a silver for Alga Beer Company Dark Lager, and two medals to Oklawaha Brewing Company– a silver for Rural Brewing in the Barrel Aged Sour category, and a bronze for Bobby Bee Kellerbier.

Several of our customers in the Old Dominion State won at the Virginia Craft Beer Cup back in August. Those include Big Lick Brewing Company, Great Valley Farm Brewery and Winery, Chaos Mountain Brewing, Heliotrope Brewery, and Three Notch’d Brewing Company. See the complete winners list on

Many of our South Carolina brewery customers— including Birds Fly South Ale Project, Carolina Bauernhaus, Frothy Beard Brewing Company, Hobcaw Brewing Company, Holy City Brewing Co., Kite Hill Brewing, Liability Brewing Company, Peak Drift Brewing Co., Plankowner Brewing, Southern Barrel Brewing Co., and The Southern Growl Beer Company— were winners at the 2022 South Carolina Beer Cup.

In September, Riverbend customers from our home state scored big at the North Carolina Brewers Cup! Bhramari Brewing Co., Black Mountain Brewing, Cellarest Beer Project, Fullsteam Brewery, Haw River Farmhouse Ales, Liquid Roots, Lenny Boy Brewery, Oklawaha Brewing, and Riverside Rhapsody. The winning beers spanned styles and subsequently Riverbend malt varieties— from German-style lagers and English ales to field & spice beers and mixed culture sours, and beyond.

In October, craft breweries across the Southeast earned Great American Beer Festival® awards at this 40th annual festival that took place in Denver, Colorado over the weekend. Congratulations to our customers Blind Tiger Brewery Creature Comforts Brewing Company, Deadwords Brewing Co., Edmund’s Oast, Legion Brewing, Lenny Boy Brewing, Monday Night Brewing, New Realm Brewing, Olde Hickory Brewing Company, Orange Hat Brewing, and Pilot Brewing who won medals. The full winners list is posted on the GABF website.

This just in! Several of our customers earned recognition at the NC Beer Industry Awards Banquet during the North Carolina Craft Brewers Conference last week, including Bhramari Brewing Co., Cellarest Beer Project, Fullsteam Brewery, Green Man Brewery, Haw River Farmhouse Ales, Lenny Boy Brewery, Oklawaha Brewing, Riverside Rhapsody Beer Co., and Tap Station. Congratulations are in order for Sean Lilly Wilson, founder and Chief Executive Optimist of Fullsteam Brewery, who was honored with the prestigious Order of the Lupulin lifetime achievement award (pictured above).

Do you have an award-winning beer #madewithRiverbend, perhaps from your state brewers guild’s competition, a state fair, or otherwise? We’d love to hear all about it. Submit your beers here to be featured.

For Learn To Homebrew Day 2022, we asked Tom Hardinge to guest blog for us about his latest batch made with Riverbend! Here’s his story. 

Homebrewers are experimenters. 

Who else would take a perfectly good pint and say, “I could make that!” and then proceed to invest most of their free time and hard-earned money attempting to reproduce something that’s readily available in bulk for $19.99 at Costco? Well as it turns out, there are a lot of us… including myself.

My homebrewing journey began more than ten years ago when, after having four children in less than two years, my wife thought I could use a hobby. For most of those years, my local homebrew shop (RIP Beer Crazy!) was the go-to place for ingredients, equipment, and advice. However, like countless small businesses around the country, online competition and the need-it-now consumerism has made life difficult for many local homebrew shops. The burden became increasingly insurmountable, and by late 2019 Beer Crazy had closed its doors for good. 

Homebrewers are also innovators; we see opportunities instead of obstacles.

The closure of my local homebrew shop meant that all my ingredients now needed to be sourced online. National retailers like Northern Brewer offered name recognition and suppliers I was already familiar with. Yet because I was procuring all of my brewing components from scratch, I thought “why not see what else is out there?” even if that meant starting an entirely new process.

Which is how I found myself in the world of craft malt.

I discovered an online retailer located in Asheville, North Carolina, called Asheville Brewers Supply. ABS has an extensive selection of ingredients, including locally sourced craft malt. For my first brew using craft malt, I selected Riverbend Base Camp pale malt to use for my base malt. Per the maltster’s description, this malt is kilned at lower temperatures to create a slightly sweet, grainy profile meant to compliment hoppier offerings. 

It sounded like the perfect pairing for my fresh-hopped IPA.

The ingredients arrived quickly, and soon I found myself back in the kitchen brewing up a fresh batch of beer. Admittedly, my brewing rig is far from sophisticated, but even so… no additional modifications needed to be made for using the craft malt. By the time I had gathered my first wort running, I knew this was going to be a great batch. Light, sweet, and slightly bready, this malt would provide a delicious “backbone” for the fresh hops.

After three weeks of fermentation and packaging, the reviews were unanimous: the combination of fresh hops with this flavorful new base malt made for an irresistible beer. I’m already planning my next batch this fall, potentially a low ABV table beer using Riverbend Heritage Malt and Bloody Butcher Corn, perfect for pairing with the holiday meals that will soon fill our tables.

The loss of local homebrew stores also signals the decline of local brewing expertise outside of the professional brewing industry. Fortunately, there are resources available online to help the new brewer understand the complexities of making your own beer at home, including the benefits of using craft malt And much like supporting your favorite local brewery benefits your local economy, supporting your local farmers and maltsters by using craft malt helps create a more localized supply chain and an increasingly sustainable brewing future. Not to mention more flavorful and fresher tasting beers!

I for one am looking forward to continuing my homebrewing endeavors by utilizing craft malt.


Follow along Tom’s homebrew journey on Instagram at @dsmbrewster, and stay tuned on @riverbendmalt for updates on his holiday ale!  

The Riverbend Malt House 11 Year Harvest is cut, and we’re pleased to report that we have a tremendous amount of high-quality, locally-sourced barley to offer our customers on a consistent basis.

Here’s Our 2022 Harvest Report.


Crop Conditions 

While the spring started off cooler than normal, temperatures rose quickly throughout May and into June. Some isolated areas reported mild drought conditions due to below average rainfall during the same period. Growing degree days, a measurement of the amount of growth and development that can take place at a given temperature, increased by 10% over 2021 levels.  

Thankfully, we didn’t have to endure a lengthy rain event in late May or early June. In years past, these events have lingered for three to four days and brought several inches of rain. This combination can be disastrous for grain quality, lowering test weight and triggering pre-harvest sprout damage. 


Avalon 2-Row Barley Is Here.

The major headline from 2022’s harvest is undoubtedly the success of the new Avalon variety from Virginia Tech. This variety has been painstakingly developed over the last ten years and this summer marks the very first commercial harvest. We’ll be pulling in a limited amount of this variety as we wait patiently for additional seed stock to be grown. This year’s crop was marked by strong test weights of over 50 pounds per bushel and plump, bright kernels. 

Initial trials in the malt house have yielded exciting results, with those plumps kernels contributing to a rich, milky sweet wort. Thus far we’ve experimented with Pilsner, Pale, and Vienna recipes. Brewing and distilling trials are happening now, and the first beers made with Avalon 2-row barley will hit the taps soon. 

Read more about the Avalon variety in the Craft Maltsters Guild Field To Bench series, and our Combining Efforts blog. 

Meet A Few Of Our Farmers.

The connections between Riverbend and our farm partners is stronger than ever. We were fortunate enough to visit several of them in 2022. 

The first of our 2022 barley yield was harvested at ASR Grain Co. in Shelby, North Carolina. We got to see it with our own eyes right before it came out of the ground back in May during our farm tour. Several fields of 2-row Calypso with low protein and high germination levels from ASR will become a key part of every batch of our Southern Select and Base Camp varieties. 

We also got to visit Bay’s Best Feed in Heathsville, Virginia (pictured above) to see Violeta and Avalon 2-row barley days before cutting this spring— and it looked incredible. It was an honor to stand on Avalon Lane on Billy Dawson’s farm. We’re beyond excited about the opportunities that this varietal will yield. 

Teeter Farm & Seed Co. in Clarksville, Tennessee successfully grew Calypso and Avalon 2-row varieties for us over the 2021-22 crop year. This farm is located in one of Tennessee’s grain growing hubs just north of Nashville, an area of the state that consistently produces high-quality wheat and barley. Above average test weights and kernel sizes were observed in both varieties. The Calypso barley will be utilized in our Cumberland Pilsners, part of our single origin Pilsner series. Stay tuned for more information on the Avalon. 

2022 marked our ninth successful harvest with Carter Farms in Eagle Springs, North Carolina. True to form, this year’s crop of Abruzzi rye crop looked beautiful. Strong test weight, low DON, and solid protein levels. We got a chance to see the crop right before harvest, standing tall in the spring sunshine.

Pro tip: keep an eye out for Carter Farms’ u-pick strawberries announcements on Facebook. This part of NC gets some of the earliest berries every year. 

Lastly, we visited Long Vue Farms in Allensville, Kentucky from which we received some beautiful soft red winter wheat, with strong test weights and plump kernels— perfect for the upcoming batches of Appalachian Wheat. 

We believe that building these types of relationships is essential to creating a local food system for craft beer and spirits. We’ll take this opportunity to express our sincere gratitude for their commitment to sustainable practices that make for quality malt– and eventually value added beverages. 

Learn even more about the growers in Riverbend’s network here.

Summertime in Tennessee means fresh fruit and vegetables, and lots of them. Harding House Brewing Co. in West Nashville celebrates this bounty with an annual green tomato Saison, Proleptic, that boasts fresh green grape flavors and bright effervescence. “I dare you to try it,” says brewery owner Nate Underwood. “It sounds crazy, but I love this beer because it represents our practice of looking to our area for ingredient selection. Our passion for brewing comes from agriculture, and green tomatoes are a big part of the agriculture in the South.” 

Underwood’s ag passion is helping to put Tennessee beer on the map. He’s one of the driving forces behind Farm To Tap (FTT), a partnership launched by the Tennessee Craft Brewers Guild and the Tennessee Department of Agriculture in 2021 to encourage Tennessee brewers to use Tennessee sourced ingredients in their beer. Underwood is so involved in this initiative, in fact, that you can’t really talk about this concept without including Nate in the conversation.

That’s what Sharon Cheek, Executive Director of the Tennessee Craft Brewers Guild, says. She credits Underwood with helping launch the program and for his advocacy around it, including speaking at the 2022 Tennessee Legislative Session to secure the program’s second year of funding with an increase from $350,000 to $400,000. 

In year one, Farm To Tap kicked off with three events at Guild member breweries— at Harding House Brewing Co. in Nashville, at Printshop Beer Co. in Knoxville, and at Soul & Spirits Brewery in Memphis — aimed to engage the public in this initiative by offering flight tastings, brewery tours and panel discussions. Additionally more than 1900 tickets were sold for three FTT festivals that also took place in Nashville, Knoxville, Memphis. “The festivals brought together farmers, brewers and consumers for these interactive half-day events that included beer tastings, music, food trucks and other Tennessee vendors to enjoy,” says Cheek. “Additionally, more than 30 Guild member breweries showcased beers utilizing Tennessee grown crops and several local vendors also attended and offered their products for sale.” 

For Riverbend, a proud Tennessee Craft Brewers Guild member, festivals that showcase beer lists full of local ingredients are our kind of festivals. These exceptional showcases of Tennessee-grown ingredients and family farms are perhaps some of the largest compilations of craft malt the Volunteer State has ever seen. 

“We’re honored to have Riverbend’s partnership from the very beginning,” Cheek adds. “From “what if” chats over beers, to informative calls about malted barley, the entire team has made themselves available to help the Farm To Tap mission succeed.”

Thanks are in order to Cheek and her team, to Nate and his crew at Harding House, and to all of the breweries involved. It’s our honor to participate.

Cheers to another year of Farm To Tap! Stay tuned and get involved at

Largely influenced by petitioning from the American Single Malt Whiskey commission, the Alcohol Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB) is proposing to establish a standard of identity for American single malt whiskey. Like a lot of craft malt, beer, and spirits distillers we’ve been advocates of this style of whiskey for years now. 

It’s a game-changer for the craft malt community because for the first time there will be a minimum qualification for single malt produced in the United States, says Will Goldberg, the Founder and Head Distiller at Oak & Grist Distilling Co. in Black Mountain, North Carolina. 

Under this Single Malt Whiskey proposal, to designate this category the product must be distilled entirely at one United States distillery. It must be mashed, distilled, aged in the United States, and sourced from a fermented mash of 100% malted barley, at a distillation proof of 160° or less, and stored in oak barrels not exceeding 700 liters. 

“At this point it doesn’t look like there is going to be an age requirement,” Goldberg says. “It also doesn’t look like there will be a requirement for the beer for the whiskey brewed at the same facility that is distilling the whiskey; which are two things that the Scottish definition has in place.” 

Designated Scotch whiskey is aged for a minimum of three years. “That’s why our Single Malt Whiskey is aged a minimum of three years,” Goldberg adds. “We’ve taken that approach from the get go, whereas our Malt Whiskey doesn’t meet that age requirement.” 

Oak & Grist’s American Single Malt batches have all been expressions of single origin, custom pale malt varieties grown in North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. We’ll get into the nuance that these barley varieties made in each Single Malt in a future post, but for now we’ll say that berry is a core note across batches, complemented by long maturation in used bourbon barrels. The resulting whiskey is smooth and balanced. American Craft Spirits Magazine put it well when this spirit first debuted in 2020: “Goldberg left this custom-abiding single malt alone for three years to draw complexities that only come with age. The drinker’s reward is a rich mouthfeel and delicate, grassy flavor brimming with chocolate, dried berries and a smoky seaside finish.” 

Spirits like Goldberg’s contribute to a diversity of flavors in the marketplace. Each region of North America supports the growth of different barley varieties which maltsters utilize to create distinctive, fresh flavors for their distillery partners. Accordingly, craft maltsters are uniquely positioned to make positive contributions to this new category. 

As the name suggests, this category is driven by malt, marking a notable departure from bourbon which is comprised of a majority of unmalted corn. This departure frees the maltster from the responsibility of delivering a high enzyme, low color malt to his or her customer. Warmer kilning temperatures that are responsible for the lush, sweet aromatics found in Munich-style products are created in an environment that often results in lower enzymatic levels than bourbon distilleries can accept. American Single Malt producers do not require these high enzyme levels because they don’t have to convert the large starch reserves present in raw corn. The end result is a much higher concentration and diversity of flavors ranging from fresh baked bread to ripe fruit that carry over from the malt to the finished distillate.

That’s our two cents. What’s yours? 

The TTB invites public comment on this proposal, due September 27, 2022, and on the specific questions listed in Notice No. 213

”Any single malt whiskey producers make sure to give support to this if you believe in it,” says Goldberg.

We couldn’t agree more.

The arc of our malt variety development begins with Heritage Malt, the aptly named OG variety to come out of what we fondly call Malthouse 1.0. It’s not a Pale or a Pilsner, nor is it a Vienna or Light Munich-style malt; rather a malt expression all its own. Heritage Malt represents the experimentation and troubleshooting that went into those early batches, and has been the most challenging product to replicate in our new, larger vessels. We’re proud to say that it’s stood the test of time in our portfolio.  Taste it across the Southeast in these mainstay recipes.


Leiper’s Fork Distilling Co. Tennessee Whiskey – Leiper’s Fork, Tennessee

Tennessee law defines this style of whiskey as a spirit distilled in Tennessee from at least 51% corn that has undergone filtering the new-make spirit through layers of charcoal before barrel-aging in charred oak barrels. Leiper’s Fork Distilling Co., located Southwest of Nashville, crafts a beautiful Bottled In Bond expression of this whiskey style using our Heritage Malt. The resulting flavors are reminiscent of milk chocolate, roasted coffee, ripe plum, dark cherry and honey.  


Weathered Ground Brewing Co. To The Place I Belong Saison – Ghent, West Virginia

Heritage Malt is a favorite character malt at West Virginia’s Weathered Ground Brewing Co., where this malt appears in many of the lager recipes. You can also taste a touch of Heritage in To The Place I Belong Saison, an ale characterized by softer mouthfeel and body from the use of our malts (Heritage, Chit, Rye, and Pilsner) for as dry a beer as it is. 


Fullsteam Brewery Road to Nowhere IPA – Durham, North Carolina 

Fullsteam Brewery adds flavor depth to their Road to Nowhere IPA with Heritage Malt. Released annually for release in the fall, Fullsteam calls this beer “a love letter to the old worn mountains of Western North Carolina… the perfect pale ale for fall and winter.”


On September 3, 2022 the Georgia Bulldogs will play the Oregon Ducks at the Mercedes-Benz Stadium in Atlanta. StillFire Brewing in Suwanee, Georgia and Ninkasi Brewing in Eugene, Oregon have collaborated on a beer for the occasion.

You guessed it— that beer is #madewithRiverbend malt! Meet Duck Duck Dog. It’s an easy-drinking American Pale Ale that each brewery crafted with ingredients grown in Georgia and Oregon. Georgia peach wood wheat to be exact, to help the beer embody a sense of place via ingredients. Our malt complements the complex berry meets grapefruit in the woods character of the Strata hops selected to represent the Pacific Northwest in this collaboration.

Flash back to the early 2000’s. Memories are hazy on exactly when Founding Brewer at Ninkasi Jamie Floyd and Brewmaster at StillFire Brewing Phil Farrell met; it could have been judging homebrew competitions, maybe golfing in the annual Sasquatch Brew-Am, pouring at Oregon Brewers Festival, or perhaps hanging out at the Horse Brass Pub in Portland. “We always seemed to find each other and hang out when events happened.” says Floyd. “We also both love judging and helping with beer competitions, so we got to do those events together as the years passed.” 

Flash forward to the kickoff of the 2022 college football season, three years after Farrell launched StillFire across the country, and this continental craft beer relationship has flourished into a collaboration brewed to feature regional ingredients.

“We decided to brew a beer that would be very quaffable during the early weeks of football season and all the associated Labor Day weekend tailgating, and an American Pale Ale with a distinct hop profile fit the bill perfectly,” says Farrell. “We wanted to include ingredients that represented the home states of the two breweries.” 

In Oregon, taste Duck Duck Dog on tap at The Ninkasi Better Living Room, where you can watch the big game on the large projector screen.

Catch Ninkasi Co-Founder Jamie Floyd during his halftime simulcast from the stadium on September 3.